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Overview         (For age - group : Below 16 )

The animation deals with the following aspects of Lenses : 1. Classification of lenses ? 2.What is the nature of the image formed by lenses? 3. Complete ray diagram This animated physics (optics) topic gives in-depth information about lenses and is very useful for schools and industry.

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Lenses and their properties :
Category : Science
Type : Animation
Length : 13 minutes
Content of the animation :

  1. Lenses - convex and concave and their various subtypes
  2. How a lens becomes converging or diverging ?
  3. Focus & Focal length explained
  4. How to construct a ray diagram ?
  5. Why is the refraction taken to occur only once in a lens ?
  6. Magnification, sign convention, image formation, power of lens
    (in explanatory notes )

classification of lenses A lens collects rays onto a single point called focus
Classification of convex lenses
A convex lens collects parallel rays onto a single point called focus
A diverging lens diverges rays parallel to its axis
Classification and types of concave lens
A diverging lens diverges rays parallel to its axis
Classification and types of concave lens
Details of the animation/ movie /software

A lens is defined as a piece of transparent, optical material having one or two spherical surfaces (whose central axes coincide).

A lens can have one spherical surface and one plane surface or it can have two spherical surfaces.
When the surface is spherical, then it has some finite radius of curvature which can be measured. However if one surface is plane, its radius is considered to be infinite.

Lenses are divided in two categories:
Converging lens or convex lens
Diverging lens or concave lens.

Each of the above category can have multiple types associated with it. Convex lenses can be of subtype as plano convex or concavo convex, or double convex lens similarly concave lenses can be of plano concave or convexo concave.

A convex lens: a piece of transparent, optical material, having one or two spherical surfaces such that it is thicker in the middle and tapering at the edges .

All of the above are thicker in the middle and tapering at their edges.

The analytical relation between the object distance, the image distance and the focal length is given by
1/f=1/do + 1/di ; where do is the object distance and di is the image distance.

Also explained in the animation are common terms like

  • Principal axis,
  • radius of curvature,
  • optical center,
  • focus ,
  • focal length.

A detailed description of how to construct a ray diagram for both types of lenses is shown, another area that is definitely confusing to beginners and is clearly explained through animation is why refraction is only taken to occur once for the ray traveling through the lens while in reality the ray undergoes medium change twice in the lens ?

Explained in more detail in the section of very popular "explanatory notes" are the key concepts about

  • Power of a lens
  • Formation of image with respect to lens type
  • Magnification formula
  • Sign convention

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Q & A
Q1: properties of convex lenses formed by solutions pranav 28/12/2011
Q2: how to assemble a telescop with simple lenses ramesh pawar 5/8/2011
Q3: Why any light ray passing through the optical centre is similar to a straight line? What is meant by the "geometric centre"? karen 12/2/2009
Q4: What are anti glare lens.How do they work?Why does reflection of white light appear to be green in colour? pearl 22/6/2008
Ans: To improve the vision through the lenses and the appearance of the glasses, an anti-glare or reflective coating is applied. It consists of several layers of metal oxides applied to the front and back lens surface that has an index of refraction that is somewhere between air and glass. When applied in a thickness of about a quarter of light's wavelength, the two reflections from each side of the film basically cancel each other out through destructive interference, minimizing the glare you see. This is light that hits the back of the lenses and bounces into the eyes. The purpose of an anti-reflective (AR) coating is to reduce these reflections off the lenses. Because of the layering effect, AR coatings sometimes have a hint of green or purple color.
Q5: from which lense things look smaller pksrivastava 24/11/2007
Ans: Concave
Q6: why does a magnifying lens burns first the center of a paper LEI CHOU 16/8/2007
Ans: It actually burns the paper at the focus of lens that is also at the center point of lens, it will burn the paper wherever you place it not necessarily at the center of the paper

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