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Overview         (For age - group : Above 16 )

The most in-depth interactive & animated coverage of virus ever, covers- what are viruses?, their structure, genome, capsid, envelope, characteristic features, pathogenic nature, difference between viruses and cellular pathogens, viroids and prions, classification, where are viruses found?, their discovery, studying viral structure, significance of viruses.

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Virus
This animation has audio.This animation contains sound
Category : Microbiology - virology
Type : Animation
Animation Type : Advanced
Total animation length: 2 Hours or more

The animation covers:

  • What are viruses?
  • Structure of virus
  • Viral genome or Nucleic acid
  • Protein coat or capsid
  • Envelope
  • Characteristic features of viruses
  • Pathogenic nature of viruses
  • Difference between viruses and cellular pathogens
  • Viroids and Prions
  • Classification of viruses
  • Where are viruses found?
  • Discovery of viruses
  • How is virus structure studied?
  • Significance of viruses

Snapshots         
Click on link below each image to view a bigger one or see preview
Virus - envelope - capsid - nucleic acid
Characteristic features of virus
Bigger Image Bigger Image
Virus envelope, capsid and nucleic acid are separate animated sections. Capsid animation is a unique one, it shows the assembly of capsid from proteins. Characteristics features of virus - Explains both living and non-living characteristics of a virus.
Classification of virus
RNA virus genome
Classification of virus - on the basis of : nature of viral genome, structure of genome,
capsid symmetry, envelope, replication.
Viral genome or Nucleic acid - Covers DNA, RNA, wider range of genomic variety.
Types of virus -Tobacco mosaic virus, adenovirus, poliovirus, bacteriophage, ebola, small pox virus
Viral structure - nucleic acid
Bigger Image Bigger Image
Types of viruses : Description of tobacco mosaic virus, adenovirus, poliovirus, bacteriophage, ebola, small pox virus
Viral structure - nucleic acid - click to see the content of animation or look at preview to know more
Details of the animation/ movie /software

This 2-hour animation is an in-depth and comprehensive approach towards virus. Virology itself is a big topic- this is the part 1 of the triology, the other two parts Virus- lifecycle ( Replication ) and Viral - immunity are presently under development and will be released shortly.

Short Description:
What are viruses?
Viruses are microscopic entities capable of infecting virtually all life forms. Can be viewed only through electron microscope. Their size ranges from 20nm -300nm.

Structure of virus:
A virus's body contains
-Nucleic acid packed in protein coat capsid.
-Capsid may be surrounded by a bilipid envelope.

Viral genome or Nucleic acid
The genome of a virus
-DNA or RNA.
-Wider range of variety in their genomes

Protein coat or capsid
Capsid- made up of proteins.
Smallest subunit - a protein molecule or polypeptide chain.
Assembly- protomer - one or more proteins.
Morphological or symmetrical unit - Capsomer - one or more protomers.
Capsid and genome together - Nucleocapsid
Capsid symmetry-shape of virus-Icosahedral symmetry (Adeno, Retro)
- helical symmetry (influenza, Rhabdo)
- Complex symmetry (bacteriophage T4, Pox virus)

Envelope - not all viruses have envelope
Enveloped virus - appear mostly spherical (HIV), bullet shaped (Rhabdovirus) or brick shaped( pox virus)
Non enveloped virus - adenovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus
Envelope made up of
Lipids derived from host cells with
Viral proteins -
-- Surface glycoproteins that appear as spikes
--Transmembrane proteins
--Embedded in the lipid layer.

Characteristic features of viruses - Virus possesses both living and non-living characteristics.
- Acellular organisms
- Do not grow or divide
- No metabolic activities
- Inert, inactive in the environment
- Obligate intracellular parasites i.e. replicate or reproduce only within a living cell.

Pathogenic nature of viruses:
All viruses are pathogens to some or the other living organism.
- Viruses are as good as a dust particle in the environment
- But all viruses bounce into action when come in contact with a specific living cell, take over the cellular machinery and directs the cell to produce virus progeny leading to cell lysis or malfunctioning of the cell, thus causing disease in infected organisms. A few viruses stimulate cells to grow uncontrollably and produce cancers.

Difference between viruses and cellular pathogens: Comparing microrganisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoans, helminths and viruses

Viroids and Prions:
Not viruses, but virus like particles: Viroids are ultramicroscopic, single-stranded molecules of RNA without any protein coat. They infect plants.
Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles, cause degenerative diseases in animals
-e.g., scrapie in sheep
-bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle
-Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans

Classification of viruses: Viruses are classified on the basis of their following properties:
-Nature of viral genome: RNA or DNA
-Structure of genome : double or single stranded, linear or circular
-Capsid symmetry: icosahedral, helical or complex
-Presence or absence of envelope
-Replication strategies

Where are viruses found?
-Everywhere
-Evolved to infect all organisms from humans to bacteria.
-Highly host specific.
Grouped into the following:
--Plant viruses
--Animal viruses
--Bacteriophages

Discovery of viruses:
- Platform to the discovery of viruses:
In 1880 Mayer identified an infectious agent in tobacco leaves that could transmit the infections into a healthy new plant.
In 1892 a Russian scientist Dimitri Ivanofsky discovered that the infectious agent of tobacco leaves was filterable claiming that agents are smaller than bacteria.
1898, Beijerinck referred to this new disease agent as a contagious living liquid-contagium vivum fluid.
In 1935 Wendell Stanley crystallized tobacco mosaic virus to demonstrate that viruses had regular shapes, and in 1939 tobacco mosaic virus was first visualized using the electron microscope.

How is virus structure studied?
Tools applied in studying the structure of virus include:
Electron microscopy
X-ray crystallography
Atomic force microscopy

Significance of viruses:
Viruses are simple biological entities and are therefore important to the study of molecular and cellular biology.
- Study of viruses helped our understanding of the basic mechanisms of molecular genetics.
- Viruses are used as a tool to cure bacterial infections and are now used in curing genetic disorders.
- Used in producing vaccines against viral diseases.

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Buyers Feedback:

Q & A
Q1: I need how many types virus, and name. Kasimbeig 18/2/2016
Ans:
   
Q2: i want to know about Nipah virus ketan pajni 18/6/2015
Ans:
   
Q3: a que estructura de los virus les ayuda a infectar a la celula huesped y repliarse en ellas ? Alejandra suarez 18/4/2013
Ans:
   
Q4: virus is classified under what kingdom, monera or protista Irma Leiva Ek 17/1/2011
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Q5: why it cant live outside even for a small time sudha 17/12/2009
Ans:
   
Q6: what is the need of culturing animal viruses? pooja 16/11/2009
Ans:
   
Q7: can a bacteria live without oxygen or in water b frantz 2/11/2009
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Q8: explain me about SPIKES IN VIRUS please...i need more information about it. me 17/2/2009
Ans:
   
Q9: tell me more about virus! d 6/1/2009
Ans:
   
Q10: which site was provide the animations of basic practricals in microbiology sravan 14/12/2008
Ans:
   
Q11: Do the viruses respire? VIJAY 5/5/2008
Ans:
   
Q12: but koi to site hogi gis se main online dakh saghun? sonia 1/5/2008
Ans:
   
Q13: please give me the web site so that i can watch full animinated movie about virus? sonia 28/4/2008
Ans: Hi Sonia, The best and cheapest way is to subscribe and view it online, it will cost you only $2 amount in subscription that gets you an one hour viewing time
   
Q14: how can i see full animinated movie about virus? sonia 26/4/2008
Ans: Please subscribe and view it online by $2 subscription that gets you an one hour viewing time or purchase and download it to view it at your leisure any number of times
   
Q15: who are the symmetry of icosahedral viruses? zahra 17/2/2008
Ans: An icosahedron follows rotational symmetry of the solid, An icosahedron has 20 equilateral triangles arranged around the face of a sphere. It is defined by having 2, 3 and 5 fold axis of symmetry, an axis of two-fold rotational symmetry through the center of each edge, an axis of three-fold rotational symmetry through the center of each face, an axis of five-fold rotational symmetry through the center of each vertex. The simplest icosahedral capsids are built up by using 3 identical subunits to form each triangular face, thereby requiring 60 identical subunits to form a complete capsid, Viruses generally fit 60 x N subunits into their capsids. N is sometimes called the triangulation number and values of 1,3,4,7,9,12 and more are permitted. All faces of the icosahedron are identical.
   
Q16: description on interferon & their types poonam chakravarthy 14/2/2008
Ans: Interferon (IFN) is a glycoprotein, known as cytokines, that occurs naturally in the body produced by the cells of the immune system in very small amounts in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA. It can be stimulated by viral infection, by intracellular parasites, by protozoa, and by bacteria and bacterial endotoxins. There are three main types: alpha, beta and gamma. Major types of Interferon are type I: binds to receptor IFN-alpha, IFN-beta and IFN-omega, Interferon type II: IFN-gamma binds to IFGNR, Interferon type III: Signal through a receptor complex consisting of IL10R2 and IFNLR1
   
Q17: what is gene flow? alex 5/2/2008
Ans: Gene flow—also called migration—is any movement of genes from one population to another. Gene flow includes lots of different kinds of events, such as pollen being blown to a new destination or people moving to new cities or countries. If genes are carried to a population where those genes previously did not exist, gene flow can be a very important source of genetic variation. Gene flow can occur between species, either through hybridization or gene transfer from bacteria or virus to new hosts. Viruses can transfer genes between species.
   
Q18: will u give free download animation flash website for the microbiology studies Joseph Gubert 15/1/2008
Ans: We are sorry but the site is a paid one but the pricing for online viewing is very Rs. 80 for 1 hour, please use this facility for viewing animation online.
   
Q19: Are there other forms of clssifications of viruses chioma 22/11/2007
Ans: We are aware of the following methods of classification of viruses: Nature of viral genome: RNA or DNA, Structure of genome : double or single stranded, linear or circular, Capsid symmetry: icosahedral, helical or complex, Presence or absence of envelope, Replication strategies.
   
Q20: I need a picture of the Ephemeral Fever virus for Bovines Linda 2/5/2007
Ans: We do not have a picture Ephemeral Fever virus for Bovines, but you can get them from Google or yahoo search for Rhabdoviruses, hope this was useful - Admin
   
Q21: i want to know how ad virus works on cancer,its mechanism merino 7/4/2007
Ans: In cancer treatment, healthy cells are also damaged with cancerous ones. Modified adenovirus hTERT-Ad, selectively kill cancerous cells, as they can replicate only in cells containing telomerase (an enzyme found in tumors but absent in normal cells). They initiate autophagy (self-cannibalization- where nucleus is undamaged but organelles are) among the cancer cells. The virus kills tumor cells by forcing them to consume themselves. This treatment reduces tumor size and increases longevity.
   
Q22: DO YOU HAVE ANY PICTURE OR ANIMATION ABOUT "POX VIRUS" monireh 24/11/2006
Ans: we have developed a small flash based animation on pox virus that shows structural details of the virus.
   
Q23: recent classification of virus umamakesh.P 27/10/2006
Ans: Two classifications methods present today, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classification. It is similar to cellular organisms i.e. Order, Family, subfamily, Genus, Species. Baltimore classification places them into 7 groups based on combination of DNA or RNA, single-stranded or double-stranded, and method of replication. Complexities come in by mimivirus ( having 1,200 genes are too complex to be classified), presence of millions of unexplored viral Species in our oceans.
   
Q24: write down the differences between viruses,viroids and prions? qazi rukhsana begum 17/5/2006
Ans: Viruses consist of a protein coat with genetic material RNA or DNA enclosed in it. They can infect all living organisms from bacteria to animals. Viriods are circular pieces of RNA that are infectious and infectious to plants. They do not contain protein coat. Prions are made up of protein molecules. They do not have any genetic material. A single mutated cellular protein PrP, on the surface of certain animal cells, can then transform the normal PrP’s into prions causing diseases in animals.
   


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