The animation starts by brief explanation of the virus replication cycle. It is covered under three main headings 1) Initiation of infection 2) Replication and the expression of the virus genome 3) Release of the mature virions from the infected cells.
There are eight stages of virus replication these are 1) Attachment 2) Penetration 3) Uncoating 4) Gene expression 5) Genome Replication 6) Assembly 7) Maturation 8) Release
Release is the last stage of virus replication cycle. In this stage, thousands of newly formed virus progeny leave the host cell in search of a new host cell, thus establishing an infection in the body.
For non-enveloped viruses, the maturation process is followed by release mechanism while in enveloped viruses; the release mechanism involves assembly and maturation of the viruses.
The non-enveloped viruses attain full infectivity or mature fully inside the cell and are mostly released by rupturing the cell. This process is called as cell lysis while the enveloped viruses assemble and are simultaneously released by the process of budding. Some enveloped viruses like HIV can infect the neighboring cells and spread infection through the process of cell-cell fusion.
- At the plasma membrane
- HIV assembly
- Influenza assembly
- At membrane of the cell organelles like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or
- Synthesis and glycosylation of
- Cell-cell fusion